Saturday, May 20, 2017

Jewish Sports in Mandate Palestine: Political Ambitions for the National Home



  Issam Khalidi

  The Zionist movement has maintained a striking continuity in its aims and methods over the past century. From the start, the movement sought to achieve a Jewish majority in Palestine and to establish a Jewish state on as much of the LAND as possible. The methods included promoting both mass Jewish immigration and acquiring tracts of land that would become the inalienable property of the Jewish people.[1] The Palestinians' responses to Jewish immigration, land purchases, and political demands were remarkably consistent. They insisted that Palestine remain an Arab country, with the same right of self-determination and independence as Egypt, Transjordan, and Iraq.[2]

   "The intention to create the Jewish National Home is to cause the disappearance or subordination of the Arabic population, culture and language," wrote Edward Said.[3] The Zionist conspiracy to expel the Palestinians from Palestine begins with Theodore Herzl. In his diary entry for June 12, 1985, Herzl wrote:

When we occupy the land, we shall bring immediate benefits to the state that receives us. We must expropriate gently the private property on the estates assigned to us. We shall try to spirit the penniless population across the border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries, while denying it any employment in our own country.[4]

   The movement which Herzl organized in 1897 itself embraced a variety of Zionist interpretations -- cultural, religious, socialist, and political. [5] Sport as a cultural element had its special interpretation in the Zionist mind. Since the beginning of the century, the main goal of the Jewish immigration to Palestine was to build the National Homeland. In order to achieve this goal, Zionists sought to use all methods and means, including sports. Efforts to dominate athletics, marginalize the Arabs, and cultivate cooperation with the British at any price were the main traits that characterized Zionist involvement in sports. Practically, every society develops its own ideology or ideologies, but Zionism is an ideology that founded a society and a State. [6] This ideology founded sports that was invented in the West. And  similar to other spheres of  Zionist  cultural aspects,  partly it had been transferred to Palestine.
     The founders of Zionism saw sport’s emphasis on organizational unity and physical fitness as a tool for fulfilling its goal of a new society. Reflecting on the Zionist spirit, Theodor Herzl wrote in his diaries, “I must train the boys to become soldiers…. I shall educate one and all to be free, strong men, ready to serve as volunteers in the case of need.”[7] Zionism quickly established athletic clubs to build physical fitness–and military preparedness.
  Sport was a tool for national regeneration, and efforts were made to create ‘Jewish sports’ that inspired Zionist feelings. Terms denoting religious-historical (but secular) symbols were superimposed onto the athletic playing field. Teams were named ‘Maccabee’, reminding fans of the years of Jewish independence in the second century BCE; ‘Betar’, signifying the Jews’ last stand against the Romans, and ‘Bar Kokhba’, connoting Jewish rebellion against tyranny. David Ben Gurion said of HaPoel Club, established in 1926 as an affiliate of the Zionist labour organization, that it “is not only an athletic organization but a castle for the working class; it must help the new immigrants.” Indeed, the group became famous for its role in smuggling weapons into the new Jewish settlements.[8]
     In the Second Zionist Congress (1898), Max Nordau coined the phrase “Muscle Judaism”.  The new term expressed the will to free oneself from the “exiled” Jew, the will to change Jewish character and to change the neurotic anxiety that allegedly characterizes it.  Moreover, it comprises of many other ideas regarding the new Jewish ethos.  The term expresses Jewish power to fight against anti-Semitism in the Diaspora and to develop military skills as a means of building a Hebrew force, and thus an attempt to contend with racial assumptions regarding the Jew’s congenital physical inferiority.  The term also expresses a model of romantic philosophy by calling for a return to the ancient heroic past of the Jewish people. Since the Jewish heroes of the past became objects of emulation, it was natural for Jewish sports unions to adopt names of legendary heroes such as Bar-Kochva, Samson, and Judea the Maccabi.[9]
   While the Zionists regarded sports as another means to strengthen the military effort, the Arabs saw it as part of an enhanced national identity and consciousness. The Zionist leadership viewed establishing athletic federations and committees as a means of achieving overall Zionist goals of establishing and legitimating Zionist claims to Palestine. These official organizations helped represent Palestine as "Jewish," both regionally and internationally, and were seen as instrumental in achieving the leadership's national and political goals.
    Sports were a mirror that reflected the political and social conditions in Palestine. They were not immune to the political changes that swept over Palestine after WWI and until 1948. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the Zionist establishment had been organizing sports-scouting exhibitions and field days. Zionist flags were raised and national anthems played. [10] The Zionist leader Theodore Herzl stated in the opening of the first Turntag [Jewish Gymnastic Exhibition] in 1903 that “such a gymnastic exhibition is worth more than a hundred speeches.”[11] One of the very first such sports exhibitions was held in Rehoboth colony which was established near a site called Khirbet Deiran.[12] This exhibition started in 1908, and continued until 1914 when it was boycotted by the Maccabi Organization, which opposed the presence of Arab guards and workers who were employed in the colony.[13] During these military-style parades, Zionist flags would be raised while a music band would lead the marches through town and enthusiastic speeches would be given in Hebrew. A letter sent to Filastin on April 20, 1913 by an observer described one of these annual celebrations in the colony of Deiran [Rehoboth]:

   At one o’clock in the afternoon the celebration procession came parading around the streets of the colony led by a music band and flying Zionist flags. They proceeded until they reached the house of the colony president, who came out onto the balcony of his house and gave a long speech in Hebrew. I understood from the numerous interruptions of applause that he was very well liked. After that the procession marched in formation through the streets of the colony, and it was an amazing spectacle due to the large number of participants. … I was given the impression that this was a well-organized army, considering their skillful movements and discipline. Then they reached the field, and the formation halted. At the front of this agricultural field a large area was designated for athletic events. A number of speakers gave enthusiastic speeches and were met with approving applause by the crowd … then the sports competitions and weightlifting started, and then horse racing, in which both men and women participated. Most of them wore Bedouin clothing; you would have thought they were Arabian warriors on horseback. … Special trains carried back visitors who came from Jerusalem and Jaffa.

   Palestine was put under military rule during the period December 1917 – June 1920. In December 1917 the British forces entered Jerusalem after defeating the Turkish forces, and then in July 1920 the British Mandate was forced on Palestine. Jewish-Arab antagonism simmered in the last decades of Ottoman rule and then erupted into full-scale conflict in the years of the British mandate. The importance of these thirty years of British government cannot be overestimated. [14]  Mandate government did not interfere in the formation of autonomous bodies which have been elected by the Zionist settlers. [15] In addition it was facilitating the creation of the paramilitary 'sports' clubs such as Beitar which later became famous for its links with the Zionist terrorist groups such as Irgun, Lehi, Haganah and Palmach. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. [16]  They were impeding the founding of Arab clubs. These clubs were under constant surveillance by the British authorities. The British provided the Zionist movement with all the possibilities that could help it in the advancement of all life aspects, including sports.
     Since mid ‘20s, Jewish clubs in Europe and the region began to visit Palestine to compete with Jewish clubs there. They flew flags that resembled the Zionist flag, a provocation that local Arabs vigorously protested to the British authorities. Also this flag has been raised (used) in most athletic exhibitions and festival. The Zionist flag was used as a symbol for inspiring national sentiments. It consisted of two equal horizontal stripes of white and blue bearing in the center the device known as the “Magen David,” a provocation that local Palestinian Arabs vigorously protested to the British authorities. This flag was flown at every athletic match, exhibition and field day.[17]
    In March 1925 the Executive Committee of the Moslem and Christian Association sent to the High Commissioner for Palestine a protest against the flying of the Zionist flag at a football match held in Jerusalem on January 12th, 1925, and asked whether the Ordinance regulating the flying of flags, issued by the Government of Palestine in August 1920 had been abrogated.[18] The wording of the paragraph in the Ordinance in question reads as follows: “The flag or emblem of any State, may not be carried or exhibited for the purpose of any partisan demonstration.”[19]
The Governor of the Jerusalem – Jaffa District replied:

     I have the honour to inform you that the flag flown was the Club flag of the Hakoah football team, of which the colours are similar to those of the Zionist flag….. It is apparent that the Hakoah Club flag is not a State flag,[20] and equally apparent that it was not being carried or exhibited for the purpose of any partisan demonstration, and that the Ordinance was therefore in no way infringed.”[21]

 The Palestine Weekly continues: “What is the Zionist flag? It consists of two equal horizontal stripes of white and blue bearing in the center the device known as the “Magen David”, the interlacing triangles, or Hexagram, sometimes called the “Shield of David”. Another flag flown by the Jews consists of the two simple blue and white strips without the “Magen David”.
    The following extract from a leading article in the “Doar ha Yom”, a Hebrew paper published in Jerusalem, and quoted in the ‘Palestine Weekly, throws some light on the subject:-

  It is now for us to say to the Government in London and to its representative in Jerusalem, Listen, the time has come when we must ask Great Britain, and of the Great Powers, and the League of Nations in particular, that all that has been done for the Arabs in Iraq, in the Hedjaz, and in Transjordania, should be done for the Jews in their National Home …… It kings and emirs have been given (sic) to the Arabs in their different lands in the East, why not give a … President to the Jewish National Home in the West (i.e. of Jordan). If the flag of the Emir is floating over Amman, why should not the flag of our President float over Tel Aviv?..... If we have a National Home, then we must have a flag, and a free land for its surroundings.  We must have a free political union with a President of our own at its head, and the Mandatory Power must show him all the respect due to a nation when it is a nation.[22]

   In 1924, the leadership of the Jewish Maccabi athletic organization attempted to gain membership in the International Amateur Athletic Federation. This initiative ended in failure as it was determined that Maccabi did not represent Arab, British and Jewish sportsmen in Palestine equally. However, this unsuccessful attempt did not discourage Maccabi leader Josef Yekutieli, who in the beginning of 1925 attempted to gain Maccabi membership in the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA).[23] Yekutieli decided to employ a different tactic this time: he first established the Palestine Football Association (PFA). The federation's inaugural meeting was convened in the summer of 1928.    Immediately, after being accepted in FIFA, the Jewish leadership started to dominate the Palestine Football Association by ensuring that Jews were the majority in it. This was accomplished by such strategies as imposing the Hebrew language (Arabic was subsequently dropped from PFA correspondence) and incorporating the Jewish flag (colors of the Zionist movement) in the federation's logo.[24] The Zionist movement invested in the PFA, increasing the number of Jewish clubs. The group sought to invite Arab clubs and teams to compete against its own, proving that Jewish clubs alone were able to represent Palestine.
   A March 1931 football match between the Egyptian University team and a Jewish team representing the PFA (Palestine Football Association) illustrated the frustration of Arabs regarding a match between the Jews and British Army and the Egyptian Tarsana Club. A letter to the editor of Filastin newspaper criticizes this match and the raising of the Zionist flags:

a mixture of soldiers of the British Army and Jewish youth… [T]hey were photographed; between them stood the Governor of Jerusalem and the Egyptian Consul… The flags that were raised on the sides of the stadium were the Egyptian flag, between the English and the Zionist flags… Around the stadium were many British soldiers and Palestine police to maintain security.[25]

    It is clear that Arabs did not show the desire to cooperate with the Zionists. They were critical to see that athletes and teams who were competing with them were Jewish immigrants seeking to replace them in their homeland. "It is important to understand in this regard that Palestinians did not see Jewish immigrants to Palestine primarily as refugees from persecution, as they were seen by most of the rest of the world. They saw them instead as arrogant European interlopers who did not accept that the Palestinians were a people or had national rights in their own country, believed that Palestine instead belonged to them, and were coldly determined to make that belief into reality. There was further a stubborn insistence on the part of most Arabs on seeing Jews as members of a religious rather than a national group (this attitude was to linger on among Arabs generally for several decades). Thus while an attempt to come to some sort of accommodation with Zionism might have been diplomatically wise, it was most probably doomed to fail because of both the drive of the Zionist movement for supremacy in Palestine, and the natural resistance to this drive of the indigenous population." wrote Khalidi.[26] The fact also that no Palestinian, regardless of his political stripe, has been able to reconcile himself to Zionism suggests the extent to which, for the Palestinians, Zionism has appeared to be an uncompromisingly exclusionary, discriminatory, colonialist praxis. [27]
  There is a clear similarity between the process of PFA’s affiliation with the FIFA and the Palestine Olympic Committee POC; the same was repeated in 1934 when the Jewish Maccabi Sports Association applied to join International Olympic Committee IOC, but IOC refused its application unless this committee will include Arab members. In August 1933 a letter signed by Lord Aberdare, member of the IOC, mailed to the Maccabi organization:

To the question of an Olympic Association for Palestine I will ask you to send me the texts of the letter by which I inform that Association of the impossibility for the I.O.C. to recognize officially the Olympic Association of Palestine, because in the present form it represented only the Maccabi organization and is not fully representative of all communities and sports, which is not accordance with our Rules. You will judge yourself if something more precise has to be said. It seems to me that if they obey by our suggestions and if they enlarge their Association by taking with them the other Jews, the Moslems and Christians; nothing will prevent them to take part as a separate country. There is no question of Independent nation in the rules. In the meantime I will see that they are not invited by Hitler to the Berlin Games.[28]

        Subsequently, the Maccabi decided to push Ali al-Mustaqim, a Moslem from Haifa and another Christian (not mentioned his name), to be represented as Arabs, just to reveal to IOC that there are two Arab members one of them is the POC Vice President. In a letter to Y. Yakutiely - Secretary of POC (and President of the Maccabi Organization), Ali al-Mustaqim accepted and confirmed this position:

     With reference to your letter of the 21st inst. [in or of the present month], asking me to accept the Vice-Presidency of the Palestine Olympic Comm. Dear Sir it would be my greatest pleasure to accept the said Vice Presidency. I should very much pleased indeed to be able to meet the rest of the members of the Committee. On this occasion, I hereby pledge to do my best to promote the sport and the Sportsmanship Spirit in this country namely Palestine.[29]

     Officially, POC was affiliated with IOC in 1934. Later, there was no Arab participation in this committee. Though, this committee carried the name Palestine, in fact it did not include any Arab member later. It was a successful step for the Zionist leadership to set foot in the IOC; it viewed establishing athletic federations and committees as a means of achieving overall Zionist goals of establishing and legitimating Zionist claims to Palestine. These official organizations helped represent Palestine as "Jewish," both regionally and internationally, and were seen as instrumental in achieving the leadership's national and political goals. Later this committee received an invitation to participate in the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936; however, it was rejected because of the persecution of Jews by the German Nazis.
   The international orientation of the leaders of the Jewish Sports Movement in Palestine was expressed in their attempts to nurture sporting relations with sports bodies in neighboring Arab – Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Trans-Jordan. An interesting episode which emphasizes the importance they attributed to the symbols of national uniqueness in the sport arena, as part of the ethos of a nation striving to achieve its independence, took place in 1930: a team of Palestine football players comprising six Jewish and nine British players toured Egypt. The team, which was named the ‘Land of Israel Select Team’ had the letter ‘P’ (short for ‘Palestine’) on its uniform, while ‘LD’ (the initials of the Hebrew name of Palestine – Land of Israel) was written in small letters. Due to this fact, as well as to the playing failure of the team in its three games, against the Cairo team (5-0), the Alexandria team (2-0) and a military team from Cairo ( 2-0) and a military team from Cairo (5-2), the trip was sharply criticized in the Hebrew press:

  We highly regard the friendly relations between our country and the neighboring countries; indeed, sport can produce such relations. Again, a team from the Land of Israel went to compete in Egypt. Their uniform is not blue and white but black and white and their symbol is not a Hebrew one but a big P and only small LD on its side…the team had to comprise the country – only the inhabitants of the country and not military people who travel here and there, and due to their temporary status in the land they cannot be representatives of the country.[30]

   But far more sinister than all these Zionist activities were the espionage schemes of the Jewish Agency that recruited Zionist agents from the ranks of the Arab Jewry. In the 1920s, the Jewish Agency set up an espionage network that had branches in the Arab world operating clandestinely behind legitimate front organizations, such as the Maccabee clubs or the intelligence agency with an "Arab" section headed by Moshe (Shertok) Sharett (1894 - 1965). The Mossad established a center in 1937 to train Arab Jews in espionage activities against their own countrymen. The spies were called "the Arab Jews."[31]

   From a racially superior point of few, Israeli scholars Harif and Galily pointed out that the new immigrants were unfettered by the many obstacles arising from the existence of long-standing, rigid local [Arab] traditions. The majority of the Jewish population of Palestine came from a European cultural background, even if not from the more advanced countries of that continent. [32]
   It’s a matter of fact, that Arab sports lagged behind Jewish sports. The awareness of the Zionist leadership about the benefits of sports was higher than among the Arabs. The Jews came to Palestine from developed industrial societies. Definitely, they brought with them physical culture and the culture of sports. The yishuv, and the Zionist movement that represented it, in consequence received powerful external support, both from many of its coreligionist elsewhere and from the greatest imperial power of the day, as well as from the League of Nations. [33] All the gauges of the economic, social, and political advancement of the yishuv – the massive import of capital, the inflow of highly skilled human capital, the community’s predominantly urban nature, its high degree of ideological homogeneity, its unique social makeup and governing structures – when taken together, indicate its capacity for generating considerable state power.[34] There is no doubt that the contest in Palestine has been between an advanced (and advancing) culture and relatively backward, more or less traditional one. But we need to try to understand what the instruments of the contest were, and how appears to confirm the validity of the Zionist claims to Palestine, thereby denigrating the Palestinian claims. In other words, we must understand the struggle between Palestinian and Zionism as  a struggle  between a presence and an interpretation, the former constantly appearing to be overpowered and eradicated by the latter. What was this presence? No matter how backward, uncivilized, and silent they were, the Palestinian Arabs were on the land.[35]
     The 1930s witnessed an increasing support for the Zionist project in Palestine. They had a pro-Zionist A. Wauchope as the British Higher Commissioner for Palestine (1931 – 1938). [36] The rise of the Nazis in Germany gave (directly or indirectly) a powerful drive to the establishment of a Jewish Home in Palestine. Within five years, (1930 – 1935), the number of Jews doubled in Palestine, with arrival of 152,000 Jewish immigrants (the total number of the Jews in 1929 was 156,000).  Large parcels of Palestinian lands were transferred to the Jews. [37] The year 1935 alone, the high point of Jewish immigration before 1948, witnessed over sixty thousand Jewish immigrants, as many as the country’s entire Jewish population in 1919. Without massive immigration the Zionist movement could not hope to claim majority status, dominate the Palestinian demographically, and build a Jewish national home in Palestine. [38]
   The British tried to crush the revolts and disarm the Palestinians but were silent on the growing military activities of the Jews, and were even involved in the recruitment and military training of tens of thousands of Jews, especially from 1936 to 1945. [39] "Since the outbreak of these events [1936 Revolt], an intensive effort was made in the Jewish Yishuv to hold sporting contests in football, swimming, water polo and hockey against the army units, in an attempt to bring British soldiers closer to Zionist settlement in Palestine," wrote Harrif and Gallily. [40]
    Since the outbreak of these events [Revolt of 1936], an intensive effort was made in the Jewish Yishuv to hold sporting contests in football, swimming, water polo and hockey against the army units, in an attempt to bring British soldiers closer to the Zionist settlement in Palestine. ‘The scope of interest of most army and navy personnel is limited to two: women and sports’, Nachum Chet, one of the heads of Maccabi, maintained in a memorandum he wrote in September 1936. Chet concluded that ‘The first field is not for us, therefore sport is in fact the only field where we could find a common language and ground between our youth and most of the army and navy’. Chet wished to build good relations with the military because, in the face of the ‘Arab Revolt’, ‘the life of the Yishuv and all its material property were given to these forces for protection and defense.  [41]
  Since 1924, the Zionists have been trying to find new tricks for admitting more Jewish immigrants to the country; they have used smuggling and manipulation,” wrote Issa al-Sifri in his 1937 book Palestine between the Mandate and Zionism:[42]

   They have pretended to submit to the restrictions of the immigration laws [while] transferring Jews to illegal resident status in Palestine by hiding them in the settlements. The Maccabiad was one of the ways of achieving these tasks.” Al-Sifri reports that for the three years following 1933, Palestine saw an average of 60,000 new Jewish immigrants each year. “The Zionist organizations used three ways of smuggling in these illegal immigrants: the Maccabiad, exhibitions and the power of absorption,” he claims. The Maccabiah Games and the Levant Fair were considered perfect opportunities to gain entry to the country, bypassing British immigration restrictions.

    The Maccabiah Games are a good example for exploiting the athletic events (with marches and flags) in order to achieve political goals. The Maccabiad was held in Tel Aviv in 1932 and 1935, hosting thousands of Jews from dozens of countries. The event stirred Jewish nationalism and provided a means of introducing Jews to the future homeland.18 It was also a means of normalizing the coming Jewish state in Palestine. Marches which looked as paramilitary and the flying of the Zionist flags were considered as a main ceremonial part of the Festivals.
  Filastin expressed its frustration toward this festival especially its semi military parade:

And the pseudo army walked through the streets of Tel Aviv until it arrived the new Maccabi stadium where the Maccabia Games took place. And for “today only” the British flag was raised along side the Zionist, which could be for the occasion of placing the party under the auspices of the High Commissioner who did not attend. The Maccabi Marches were held in front of the Mayor Tel Aviv – Dizinkoff.[43]    

    Representing Palestine by the Jews was not limited to the PFA and POC. The Zionists workers association ha-Poel (established in 1926) represented Palestine in the Workers Olympics in Europe in 1931 and 1937. The Jewish athletic organizations set up their semi Olympics (Maccabiad, Maccabiah) in Tel Aviv in 1932, 1935. Ten thousands attended the second Maccabiah, the Zionist flags were raised; participants and attendees chanted for the future national home.[44]
    In May 1932  a team from Palestine took part in the Syrian Olympics, this team included 12 members from the Maccabi, 6 from the British, 6 – YMCA, 3- Hapoel, 1 Armenian.[45] In 1935, Palestine was invited to take part in the Mediterranean Olympics. Under the title (Palestine and the Greece Olympics) al-Difa’ (established in 1934) commented about the participation in these games:

     In Athens the Capital of Greece will be held in 28th to 30th of this month the Athletic Games of the Countries of the Mediterranean, we received the news that “Palestine” will participate in these Games. We have been informed that 12 Jewish athletes will departure to participate in these Games claiming that they represent Palestine. It is not unlikely that we will be informed that these youth had raised the Zionist flag, claiming that it is the Palestinian flag? Who is responsible for conveying the right information of the identity of these athletes to the Greece Government? [46]

Unfortunately, the National leadership in Palestine had to be blamed as well as the Palestinian athletic leadership, for both were not aware of the importance of sports in the national and ideological struggle of the Palestinian people.  



Issam Khalidi, an independent scholar living in San Francisco, California, is author of History of Sports in Palestine 1900-1948 in Arabic, One Hundred Years of Football in Palestine in Arabic and English, as well as various articles on the subject included at www.hpalestinesports.net.


Endnotes:


[1] http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Palestine-Remembered/Story452.html
[2] http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Palestine-Remembered/Story452.html
[3]Edward Said, The Question of Palestine (New York: Vintage Books, 1980), p. 83, quoted in David Waines, "The Failure of the Nationalist Resistance, in The Transformation of Palestine”, ed. Ibrahim Abu-Lughod (Evanston, III.: Northwestern University Press , 1971), p.220.
[4] Raphael Patai, ed., The Complete Diaries of Theodore Herzl, Trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Herzl Press and Thomas Yoseloff, 1960), volume 1, p. 88.
[5] Alan R. Taylor, The Zionist Mind, (Beirut: The Institute For Palestine Studies,  1974). p. 193.
[6] Elmessiri, Abdelwahhab,The Land of Promise, (New Brunswick, 1977), p.190.
[7] Herzl, Theodor. The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl Vol 1 (New York: Herzl Press and Thomas Yoseloff, 1960) 51.
[8] The first Maccabee club was founded in Jerusalem in 1911. The Encyclopedia Judaica writes: “The Hapoel members pioneered in naval and other activities in order to assist illegal immigration into Palestine. They also helped to establish settlements and were active in the Haganah. The Betar clubs were established in 1924.” Al-Sifri also indicated that Zionist clubs motivated youth to achieve Zionist goals in Palestine by involving them in the paramilitary movement. They believed in strength, and that in a sinful world only the strong were likely to get what was due them. The members of these athletic clubs were specifically those young people organized by revisionists such as Zeev Jabotinsky to learn military techniques under the cover of athletic games.
[9] Nordau, “The Lodgz and the Esperantists”, Zionist Writings, Jerusalem,  1936 , pp. 126-127, quoted in Sports, Zionst Ideology And The State Of Israel.
Haim Kaufman & Yair Galily, See:http://www.wincol.ac.il/wincol.ac.il/originals/kaufmangalily.pdf
[10] Filastin, 12 April 1921.
[11] Die Welt, 29 August 1903, 16. Quoted in George Eisen, “The Maccabiah Games: a History of the Jewish Olympics”, Diss., UM, 1979, 34.
[12] Rehoboth (about 20 kilometers south of Tel Aviv) was established in 1890 by Polish Jewish immigrants. It was located near a site called Khirbat Deiran, which now lies in the center of the built-up area of the city. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Rehovot, accessed 5 October 2015.
[13] Encyclopedia Judaica, s.v. “Rehoboth” (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1972).
[14] Niall O Murchu, "Labor, the State, and Ethnic Conflict: A Comparative Study of British Rule in Palestine (1920 - 1939) and Northern Ireland (1972-1994)." (SEattle: University of Wahsington Ph.D. Dissertation, 2001). Quoted in Baruch Kimmerling, Joel Migdal, The Palestinian People, a history, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003). 415.
[15] http://www.palestinapedia.net/category/%d8%a8/
[16] Mohsen M. Saleh, British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939, Intellectual  Discourse,  2003. VOL 11, NO 2,  139-163
[17]Encyclopedia Judaica, s.v. “Rehoboth” (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1972). 
[18] Palestine Weekly, 24March 1925.
[19] Palestine Weekly, 24March 1925.
[20] The Hakoah Vienna arrived to Palestine in March 1925 to match the Jewish clubs there, in order to strengthen the connections between the Jewish clubs in Europe and the “Land of Israel”.
[21] Palestine Weekly, 24March 1925.
[22] Quoted from (Palestine Weekly 24/March 1925)
[23] J. Yekutieli, Over a Jubilee, 50+: Memories from ‘Maccabi’, from the Turkish Army in the First World War and from the Hebrew Sports Movement in the Land of Israel, Second Part (Author’s Publishing, 1975), pp.49-51.
Quoted from: Harif, H; Galily, Y. “Sport and Politics in Palestine, 1918-1948: Football as a Mirror Reflecting the   Relations between Jews and Britons”. Soccer and Society, Vol. 4, no. 1, (Spring 2003), p. 41-56.
[24] For these reasons the Palestinians felt the necessity for establishing the (Palestine Sports Federation) which organized tournaments between Arabic clubs; it could organize its activities with Mu’tamar Ashabab the Youth Conference, where in July 1935 as a response to the Maccabiah Games, both the PSF and the Youth Conference organized the first (successful) Scouts Athletic Festival. The PSF was paralyzed after the start of the 1936 Revolt when many of the clubs’ members were subject to arrests. In the end of the 1930’s it was completely paralyzed. In September 1944 the PSF was officially reestablish, however prior to 1948 there were some 65 social athletic clubs in Palestine. Approximately 55 of them were members of the Arab Palestine Sports Federation, and included athletic clubs from all over Palestine.
[25] Filastin, March 28 1931
[26]Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood(Boston: Beacon Press, 2007) 120.
[27]Edward Said, The Question of Palestine, p. 69.
[28]Quoted from Khalid Ijawi, “Palestinian Sports Movement in Diaspora,” [al Haraka a-Riyadiya al Falastiniyafi al-Shatat, al-Dar al-Watania], Damascus. 2001. P. 57 – 60.
[29] Ibid
[31]Abdelwahab Elmessir, The Land of Promise, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: North American, 1977), p. 39.
[32] Harif, H; Galily, Y. Sport and Politics in Palestine, 1918-1948.
[33] Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage, p. 9.
[34] Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage, p.21.
[35] Edward Said, The Question of Palestine, 8-9.
[36] Mohsen M. Saleh, British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939.
[37] Mohsen M. Saleh, British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939,
[38]  Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage. p. 11.
[39] Mohsen M. Saleh, British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939.
[40] Harif, H; Galily, Y. Sport and Politics in Palestine, 1918-1948.
[41] Harif, H; Galily, Y. Sport and Politics in Palestine, 1918-1948.
[42] Issa al-Sifri, Filastin bayn al-Intidab wa al-Sahyuniyya [Palestine between the Mandate and Zionism] (Jaffa: Maktabat Filastin al-Jadida, 1937), 194.
[43] Filastin, April 1st  1932.
[44]Maccabiah or Maccabiad, Jewish Olympics, held in 1932, 1935. The main purpose of these games was to bring more illegal Jewish immigrants to Palestine.
[45]Palestine Bulletin, May 2, 1932
[46] Al-Difa’, June 15 1935.

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